saph440 fatigue limit

saph440 mechanical properties - Mild Carbon Steel Plates

Description SAPH440 Steel - JIS G3113 Structural Automobile Hot RolledJan 27,2013Mechanical Properties of SAPH440 Steels The tensile strength of the SAPH440 Steels is expressed in Newton per millimeters and it must be at least 440 N/mm2 (MPa).The yield strength is minimum 275 to minimum 305 N/mm2 (MPa) depending on the thickness.The elonga saph440 mechanical properties - Mild Carbon Steel PlatesDescription SAPH440 Steel - JIS G3113 Structural Automobile Hot RolledJan 27,2013Mechanical Properties of SAPH440 Steels The tensile strength of the SAPH440 Steels is expressed in Newton per millimeters and it must be at least 440 N/mm2 (MPa).The yield strength is minimum 275 to minimum 305 N/mm2 (MPa) depending on the thickness.The elonga researchgate.netIt is well known that the targeted fuel efficiency could only be achieved by more than 40% reduction of the vehicle weight through improved design and extensive utilization of lig

Why fatigue limit only exist in some materials?

I think the endurance limit and fatigue limit are not same..all materials do have a fatigue limit if the high cycle fatigue tests at that frequency can be run for 10^8 cycles but this does not What is a Fatigue Strength? - Definition from CorrosionpediaNov 22,2013 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Fatigue strength is also known as endurance strength or fatigue limit.Corrosionpedia explains Fatigue Strength.Fatigue strength is used to describe the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure,or the highest stress that a material can withstand for a given number of cycles U001en Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets and Coilsfatigue strength.Wheel discs High-Hole Expanding High-Strength Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets and Coils with Automobile Formability NSHA370B,NSHA540B NSHA400B,NSHA590B NSHA440B,NSHA690B NSHA490B,NSHA780B NSHA980B They can be used for a wide range of applications,from general forming to drawing and have superior burring property.Suspensions

Steels - Endurance Limits and Fatigue Stress

1 MPa = 10 6 Pa = 1 N/mm 2 = 145.0 psi (lbf/in 2); Fatigue limit,endurance limit,and fatigue strength are used to describe the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.; Creep.The time dependent deformation due to heavy load over time is known as creep..In general both stress and temperature influence on the rate of creep Stainless Steel - Grade 440 (UNS S44000)Nov 07,2001 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Suitable heat treatment can see this grade attain the highest hardness,strength and wear resistance of any stainless steel.This is due to the high carbon content.The composition is optimised for hardness at the expense of others.Applications include valve seats,blades,surgical instruments etcSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.

SPFH590 (JIS ) - Worldwide equivalent grades

European equivalent grade for Steel SPFH590 (JIS ) S420MC (1.0980) NEW opportunities for buyers! Post free buying requirement for product SPFH590 (JIS ) Chemical composition and properties of european equivalents (EN) for SPFH590 (Japan,JIS ):Previous123456Nextsaph440 fatigue limit - phare-stadsbrouwerijsaph440 fatigue limit.Fatigue Safety Design of Automotive Rear Sub frame by .May 20,2018 From these,it was suggested that the fatigue properties could be predicted from this static CAE simulation.A weight reduction ratio of 25% was achieved between the SAPH440 and AA6061 model.It was a useful method to satisfy the fatigue safetyPrediction of fracture in hub-hole expanding process using Jun 12,2007 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;A hole expansion process is an important process in producing a hub-hole in a wheel disc of a vehicle.In this process,the main parameter is the form

People also askWhat is the difference between fatigue and fatigue limit?What is the difference between fatigue and fatigue limit?When keeping the load below the fatigue limit,a part can withstand a huge number of cycles,usually more than 10 million but up to 500 million.The difference between fatigue strength and fatigue limit is in the number of cycles.It is considerably higher with fatigue limit.Material Fatigue Strength - Limits Failure Explained Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar A356/SAPH440 Lap

saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Aluminum alloy A356-T6 and automotive steel sheet SAPH440 were joined using friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting.The maximum tensile shear strength values in weld joints were approximately 3.5 kN at a rotation speed of 500 rpm and plunge depth of 1.0 mm.It was confirmed that the intermetallic compound layer of weld joints below 9.23 m did not exceed the permissible JJIS G3134-SPFH590,JJIS G3134-SPFH590 Automotive SPFH590 Automotive steel.SPFH590 is a kind of Automotive structural steel,SPFH590 widely used for forming performance of the automobile frame,wheels and other automobile components.Key words:SPFH590,SPFH590 automotive steel,JJIS G3134 SPFH590 automotive steel,JJIS G3134 SPFH590 steel for cold forming,SPFH590 hot rolled steel plate/thin plate / steel belt,Hot-rolled pickled

Investigation of the Effect of the Roughness-Induced

Keywords fatigue crack,crack opening ratio,roughness-induced crack closure,mixed-mode,C-scan 1.Introduction Crack propagation behavior under mixed mode loading conditions is important to predict the lifetime of structures.For many years,there have been many researches and reviews of the fatigue crack propagation behavior underIOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering The fatigue limit state is associated with fatigue failure,which is caused by brittle fracture due to propagation of a fatigue crack from initial to critical size.The fatigue crack propagation is analysed using linear fracture mechanics. The effects of R i /T ratio on residual stress of SAPH440 steel welding for auto parts.L X Chi,S F How to estimate the endurance limit for a fatigue analysis The endurance limit is generally associated with 1 million (1E6) to 10 million cycles (1E7) for steel.Keep in mind that there is considerable scatter in the data used to derive the estimated endurance limit given previously,so a larger factor of safety should be used.

Fatigue test - tec-science

Alternating fatigue limit and pulsating fatigue limit are special cases for fatigue limits for a purely alternating load (mean stress = 0) or a purely pulsating load (mean stress = stress amplitude)! Fatigue strength.Even if components are subjected to dynamic stress,they do not always have to be designed for fatigue limit for economic reasons.Fatigue test - tec-scienceAlternating fatigue limit and pulsating fatigue limit are special cases for fatigue limits for a purely alternating load (mean stress = 0) or a purely pulsating load (mean stress = stress amplitude)! Fatigue strength.Even if components are subjected to dynamic stress,they do not always have to be designed for fatigue limit for economic reasons.Fatigue of Metals Part Three : Total Materia ArticleThe fatigue limit,So has also been related to the yield strength (Rp),in Figure 2.The fatigue ratio So/Rp exhibits a substantial variation with strength but the So/Rm ratio is almost independent of strength within each steel type.The lower values of fatigue ratio for the austenitic steels compared to the duplex is a consequence of the low

Fatigue of Materials - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Low cycle fatigue (LCF) data for Ni 3 Al and most other intermetallics are very sparse.However,Gordon and Unni (1991) have reported the dependence of life on strain amplitude for polycrystalline alloy IC-221 (see Table 1 for composition).The transition fatigue life,N t,defined as the LCF life where elastic and plastic strains are equal,is an important factor in gas turbine disk life.Fatigue limit - Calculations FormulaFatigue limit,endurance limit,and fatigue strength are all expressions used to describe a property of materials the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.Ferrous alloys and titanium alloys have a distinct limit,an amplitude below which there appears to be no number of cycles that will cause failure.Fatigue Safety Design of Automotive Rear Sub-frame by The reference material for the rear sub-frame was the commonly used SAPH440 steel.The maximum von Mises stresses obtained from the simulated strength analysis were normalized as the fatigue limit

Fatigue Safety Design of Automotive Rear Sub-frame by

The reference material for the rear sub-frame was the commonly used SAPH440 steel.The maximum von Mises stresses obtained from the simulated strength analysis were normalized as the fatigue limit Fatigue Limit - an overview ScienceDirect TopicsThe fatigue limit for crack initiation, w1,is the stress amplitude corresponding to the applied K max value equal to the K effth at the stage-I crack length c 1.The fatigue limit, w2,is the stress amplitude where the applied K max curve is the tangent of the R-curve.Fatigue Analysis Software Weld assessment - Get free trial!LIMIT is the leading software for performing fatigue strength and static strength assessments for your components according to different design codes and engineering standards.A cutting edge fatigue analysis software has to meet three challenges Finding the most damaging loads,checking all potential crack initiation areas such as welds and

Fatigue - MIT

Fatigue David Roylance Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge,MA 02139 May 1,2001 IntroductionFactors that effect fatigue strengthmultiply the endurance limit (S e) of the material (for example,the endurance limit of most steels is computed to be saph440 fatigue limit#189; S ut if S ut saph440 fatigue limitlt; 200 ksi; if S ut 200 ksi,use an endurance limit of 100 ksi).The fatigue strength of steel is approximately 0.9Sut at 1000 cycles.IfEffect of pre-strain on the fatigue behavior of SAPH440 Dec 09,2019 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;The present research envisages the effects of different uniaxial tensile pre-strain levels on the fatigue properties of the SAPH440 steel.The S-N curves of different pre-strain levels (0%,6%,12%,18%) were drawn using different load levels,with a stress ratio R = 1.The test results show that the fatigue strength of the SAPH440 steel increased with an increasement in the uniaxial tensile

ENDURANCE LIMIT REDUCTION FACTORS

fatigue resistance by determining the reduction in the ultimate strength and then using this reduced ultimate strength to estimate the endurance limit at elevated temperature.Table 6-4 shows the tensile strength reduction factors for 21 different carbon and allow steels.A relationship fit to that data is provided below.This factor of k dChronic Fatigue Diet 12 Hacks - HealthlineJun 10,2020 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Since inflammation appears to play a role in chronic fatigue,Montoya recommends trying an anti-inflammatory diet or adding anti-inflammatory foods like fish and olive oil.Try to limit 12345NextMaterial Fatigue Strength - Limits Failure Explained Fatigue Limit.Fatigue limit,denoted by S f,is defined as the value of stress at which N f (number of cycles at which failure occurs) becomes very large.N f can be increased by reducing the stress value of the cyclic load.When keeping the load below the fatigue limit,a part can withstand a huge number of cycles,usually more than 10

(PDF) Statistical Estimation of S-N Curves for Structural

Moreover,using the distribution of fatigue limit E,the percent ile points for the predicted S-N curve were also estimated.It was finally confirmed that 81 % of S - N data series fall within the results for this questionWhat is the fatigue limit of SN Curve?What is the fatigue limit of SN Curve?For fatigue limits based on 109 cycles,few results can be observed in References [ 1 to 6 ].Until now,the shape of the SN curve beyond 10 7 cycles was predicted using the probabilistic method,and this is also true for the fatigue limit.In principle,the fatigue limit is given for a number of cycles to failure.Fatigue Limit - an overview ScienceDirect Topics results for this questionWhat is fatigue strength or endurance limit?What is fatigue strength or endurance limit?Whereas the fatigue strength or fatigue limit or Endurance limit is used to describe the material property that the cyclic load can be applied to the material without causing the failure.Consider a wire (Solid) of comparatively less diameter with the length as shown in the figure.Difference between Fatigue Limit and Endurance Limit - ExtruDesign

results for this questionWhat is fatigue failure?What is fatigue failure?The weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads can be said as the fatigue failure.See the picture representing where the crack started (Origen) and the complete fatigue zone and the final failure zones.These cyclic or repeated loads are known as fatigue loads.Difference between Fatigue Limit and Endurance Limit - ExtruDesign results for this questionFeedbackSAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel plate,SAPH310

Bebon International is a professional SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel exporter and a steel Stockist in china.We keep more than 1000 tons SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel in stock every month.If you want to get the SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel price,please do not hesitate to contact us.Any need in SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 Chemical Composition

saph440 mechanical properties - Mild Carbon Steel Plates

Description SAPH440 Steel - JIS G3113 Structural Automobile Hot RolledJan 27,2013Mechanical Properties of SAPH440 Steels The tensile strength of the SAPH440 Steels is expressed in Newton per millimeters and it must be at least 440 N/mm2 (MPa).The yield strength is minimum 275 to minimum 305 N/mm2 (MPa) depending on the thickness.The elonga saph440 mechanical properties - Mild Carbon Steel PlatesDescription SAPH440 Steel - JIS G3113 Structural Automobile Hot RolledJan 27,2013Mechanical Properties of SAPH440 Steels The tensile strength of the SAPH440 Steels is expressed in Newton per millimeters and it must be at least 440 N/mm2 (MPa).The yield strength is minimum 275 to minimum 305 N/mm2 (MPa) depending on the thickness.The elonga researchgate.netIt is well known that the targeted fuel efficiency could only be achieved by more than 40% reduction of the vehicle weight through improved design and extensive utilization of lig

Why fatigue limit only exist in some materials?

I think the endurance limit and fatigue limit are not same..all materials do have a fatigue limit if the high cycle fatigue tests at that frequency can be run for 10^8 cycles but this does not What is a Fatigue Strength? - Definition from CorrosionpediaNov 22,2013 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Fatigue strength is also known as endurance strength or fatigue limit.Corrosionpedia explains Fatigue Strength.Fatigue strength is used to describe the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure,or the highest stress that a material can withstand for a given number of cycles U001en Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets and Coilsfatigue strength.Wheel discs High-Hole Expanding High-Strength Hot-Rolled Steel Sheets and Coils with Automobile Formability NSHA370B,NSHA540B NSHA400B,NSHA590B NSHA440B,NSHA690B NSHA490B,NSHA780B NSHA980B They can be used for a wide range of applications,from general forming to drawing and have superior burring property.Suspensions

Steels - Endurance Limits and Fatigue Stress

1 MPa = 10 6 Pa = 1 N/mm 2 = 145.0 psi (lbf/in 2); Fatigue limit,endurance limit,and fatigue strength are used to describe the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.; Creep.The time dependent deformation due to heavy load over time is known as creep..In general both stress and temperature influence on the rate of creep Stainless Steel - Grade 440 (UNS S44000)Nov 07,2001 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Suitable heat treatment can see this grade attain the highest hardness,strength and wear resistance of any stainless steel.This is due to the high carbon content.The composition is optimised for hardness at the expense of others.Applications include valve seats,blades,surgical instruments etcSome results are removed in response to a notice of local law requirement.For more information,please see here.

SPFH590 (JIS ) - Worldwide equivalent grades

European equivalent grade for Steel SPFH590 (JIS ) S420MC (1.0980) NEW opportunities for buyers! Post free buying requirement for product SPFH590 (JIS ) Chemical composition and properties of european equivalents (EN) for SPFH590 (Japan,JIS ):Previous123456Nextsaph440 fatigue limit - phare-stadsbrouwerijsaph440 fatigue limit.Fatigue Safety Design of Automotive Rear Sub frame by .May 20,2018 From these,it was suggested that the fatigue properties could be predicted from this static CAE simulation.A weight reduction ratio of 25% was achieved between the SAPH440 and AA6061 model.It was a useful method to satisfy the fatigue safetyPrediction of fracture in hub-hole expanding process using Jun 12,2007 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;A hole expansion process is an important process in producing a hub-hole in a wheel disc of a vehicle.In this process,the main parameter is the form

People also askWhat is the difference between fatigue and fatigue limit?What is the difference between fatigue and fatigue limit?When keeping the load below the fatigue limit,a part can withstand a huge number of cycles,usually more than 10 million but up to 500 million.The difference between fatigue strength and fatigue limit is in the number of cycles.It is considerably higher with fatigue limit.Material Fatigue Strength - Limits Failure Explained Mechanical Properties of Dissimilar A356/SAPH440 Lap

saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Aluminum alloy A356-T6 and automotive steel sheet SAPH440 were joined using friction stir spot welding and self-piercing riveting.The maximum tensile shear strength values in weld joints were approximately 3.5 kN at a rotation speed of 500 rpm and plunge depth of 1.0 mm.It was confirmed that the intermetallic compound layer of weld joints below 9.23 m did not exceed the permissible JJIS G3134-SPFH590,JJIS G3134-SPFH590 Automotive SPFH590 Automotive steel.SPFH590 is a kind of Automotive structural steel,SPFH590 widely used for forming performance of the automobile frame,wheels and other automobile components.Key words:SPFH590,SPFH590 automotive steel,JJIS G3134 SPFH590 automotive steel,JJIS G3134 SPFH590 steel for cold forming,SPFH590 hot rolled steel plate/thin plate / steel belt,Hot-rolled pickled

Investigation of the Effect of the Roughness-Induced

Keywords fatigue crack,crack opening ratio,roughness-induced crack closure,mixed-mode,C-scan 1.Introduction Crack propagation behavior under mixed mode loading conditions is important to predict the lifetime of structures.For many years,there have been many researches and reviews of the fatigue crack propagation behavior underIOP Conference Series Materials Science and Engineering The fatigue limit state is associated with fatigue failure,which is caused by brittle fracture due to propagation of a fatigue crack from initial to critical size.The fatigue crack propagation is analysed using linear fracture mechanics. The effects of R i /T ratio on residual stress of SAPH440 steel welding for auto parts.L X Chi,S F How to estimate the endurance limit for a fatigue analysis The endurance limit is generally associated with 1 million (1E6) to 10 million cycles (1E7) for steel.Keep in mind that there is considerable scatter in the data used to derive the estimated endurance limit given previously,so a larger factor of safety should be used.

Fatigue test - tec-science

Alternating fatigue limit and pulsating fatigue limit are special cases for fatigue limits for a purely alternating load (mean stress = 0) or a purely pulsating load (mean stress = stress amplitude)! Fatigue strength.Even if components are subjected to dynamic stress,they do not always have to be designed for fatigue limit for economic reasons.Fatigue test - tec-scienceAlternating fatigue limit and pulsating fatigue limit are special cases for fatigue limits for a purely alternating load (mean stress = 0) or a purely pulsating load (mean stress = stress amplitude)! Fatigue strength.Even if components are subjected to dynamic stress,they do not always have to be designed for fatigue limit for economic reasons.Fatigue of Metals Part Three : Total Materia ArticleThe fatigue limit,So has also been related to the yield strength (Rp),in Figure 2.The fatigue ratio So/Rp exhibits a substantial variation with strength but the So/Rm ratio is almost independent of strength within each steel type.The lower values of fatigue ratio for the austenitic steels compared to the duplex is a consequence of the low

Fatigue of Materials - an overview ScienceDirect Topics

Low cycle fatigue (LCF) data for Ni 3 Al and most other intermetallics are very sparse.However,Gordon and Unni (1991) have reported the dependence of life on strain amplitude for polycrystalline alloy IC-221 (see Table 1 for composition).The transition fatigue life,N t,defined as the LCF life where elastic and plastic strains are equal,is an important factor in gas turbine disk life.Fatigue limit - Calculations FormulaFatigue limit,endurance limit,and fatigue strength are all expressions used to describe a property of materials the amplitude (or range) of cyclic stress that can be applied to the material without causing fatigue failure.Ferrous alloys and titanium alloys have a distinct limit,an amplitude below which there appears to be no number of cycles that will cause failure.Fatigue Safety Design of Automotive Rear Sub-frame by The reference material for the rear sub-frame was the commonly used SAPH440 steel.The maximum von Mises stresses obtained from the simulated strength analysis were normalized as the fatigue limit

Fatigue Safety Design of Automotive Rear Sub-frame by

The reference material for the rear sub-frame was the commonly used SAPH440 steel.The maximum von Mises stresses obtained from the simulated strength analysis were normalized as the fatigue limit Fatigue Limit - an overview ScienceDirect TopicsThe fatigue limit for crack initiation, w1,is the stress amplitude corresponding to the applied K max value equal to the K effth at the stage-I crack length c 1.The fatigue limit, w2,is the stress amplitude where the applied K max curve is the tangent of the R-curve.Fatigue Analysis Software Weld assessment - Get free trial!LIMIT is the leading software for performing fatigue strength and static strength assessments for your components according to different design codes and engineering standards.A cutting edge fatigue analysis software has to meet three challenges Finding the most damaging loads,checking all potential crack initiation areas such as welds and

Fatigue - MIT

Fatigue David Roylance Department of Materials Science and Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge,MA 02139 May 1,2001 IntroductionFactors that effect fatigue strengthmultiply the endurance limit (S e) of the material (for example,the endurance limit of most steels is computed to be saph440 fatigue limit#189; S ut if S ut saph440 fatigue limitlt; 200 ksi; if S ut 200 ksi,use an endurance limit of 100 ksi).The fatigue strength of steel is approximately 0.9Sut at 1000 cycles.IfEffect of pre-strain on the fatigue behavior of SAPH440 Dec 09,2019 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;The present research envisages the effects of different uniaxial tensile pre-strain levels on the fatigue properties of the SAPH440 steel.The S-N curves of different pre-strain levels (0%,6%,12%,18%) were drawn using different load levels,with a stress ratio R = 1.The test results show that the fatigue strength of the SAPH440 steel increased with an increasement in the uniaxial tensile

ENDURANCE LIMIT REDUCTION FACTORS

fatigue resistance by determining the reduction in the ultimate strength and then using this reduced ultimate strength to estimate the endurance limit at elevated temperature.Table 6-4 shows the tensile strength reduction factors for 21 different carbon and allow steels.A relationship fit to that data is provided below.This factor of k dChronic Fatigue Diet 12 Hacks - HealthlineJun 10,2020 saph440 fatigue limit#0183;Since inflammation appears to play a role in chronic fatigue,Montoya recommends trying an anti-inflammatory diet or adding anti-inflammatory foods like fish and olive oil.Try to limit 12345NextMaterial Fatigue Strength - Limits Failure Explained Fatigue Limit.Fatigue limit,denoted by S f,is defined as the value of stress at which N f (number of cycles at which failure occurs) becomes very large.N f can be increased by reducing the stress value of the cyclic load.When keeping the load below the fatigue limit,a part can withstand a huge number of cycles,usually more than 10

(PDF) Statistical Estimation of S-N Curves for Structural

Moreover,using the distribution of fatigue limit E,the percent ile points for the predicted S-N curve were also estimated.It was finally confirmed that 81 % of S - N data series fall within the results for this questionWhat is the fatigue limit of SN Curve?What is the fatigue limit of SN Curve?For fatigue limits based on 109 cycles,few results can be observed in References [ 1 to 6 ].Until now,the shape of the SN curve beyond 10 7 cycles was predicted using the probabilistic method,and this is also true for the fatigue limit.In principle,the fatigue limit is given for a number of cycles to failure.Fatigue Limit - an overview ScienceDirect Topics results for this questionWhat is fatigue strength or endurance limit?What is fatigue strength or endurance limit?Whereas the fatigue strength or fatigue limit or Endurance limit is used to describe the material property that the cyclic load can be applied to the material without causing the failure.Consider a wire (Solid) of comparatively less diameter with the length as shown in the figure.Difference between Fatigue Limit and Endurance Limit - ExtruDesign

results for this questionWhat is fatigue failure?What is fatigue failure?The weakening of a material caused by repeatedly applied loads can be said as the fatigue failure.See the picture representing where the crack started (Origen) and the complete fatigue zone and the final failure zones.These cyclic or repeated loads are known as fatigue loads.Difference between Fatigue Limit and Endurance Limit - ExtruDesign results for this questionFeedbackSAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel plate,SAPH310

Bebon International is a professional SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel exporter and a steel Stockist in china.We keep more than 1000 tons SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel in stock every month.If you want to get the SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 steel price,please do not hesitate to contact us.Any need in SAPH310 SAPH370 SAPH400 SAPH440 Chemical Composition

Get In Touch

We receive enquiries in English, Español (Spanish). Our professional team will reply to you within one business day. Please feel FREE to contact us!

Top